A Reforma Neoliberal da Saúde no Chile vem sendo elogiada, em especial, pelo Banco Mundial, que se refere a ela como exemplo para outros países. Entretanto, há uma série de críticas quanto a forma como ela vem sendo realizada desde seu início, no governo Pinochet (1973–1989).
Este artigo da PlosMedicine analisa as mudanças realizadas e chama atenção para o aumento dos gastos e o financiamento público do sistema privado:
“The Chilean health system has been studied extensively . Its current form is the result of a major reform undertaken by the Pinochet government following the coup d’état in 1973. Pinochet’s reform established competition between public and private health insurers and promoted private health services, following neoliberal principles. Neoliberalism is an economic and political movement that gained consensus in the 1980s among international organisations like the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. This movement demands reforms such as free trade, privatisation of previously public-owned enterprises, goods, and services, undistorted market prices, and limited government intervention. After the publication of the World Bank’s 1993 report, “Investing in Health” , Chile became a model for neoliberal reforms to health services.
In this Policy Forum, we assess the effects of the Chilean reform from Pinochet until 2005, and including the transition to democracy in 1990. We suggest that the use of Chile as a model for other countries of the health benefits of neoliberalism is seriously misguided. We stress the dominant role of the public health system in Chile, while most other studies have assessed the introduction of a private insurance sector as part of the neoliberal reform. Revisiting the Chilean health reform after 25 years, we come to new conclusions that could be important for countries such as Ecuador and Bolivia, which are preparing health reforms, and even for the United States, with its current debate on universal health insurance.”
- The Chilean health system underwent a drastic neoliberal reform in the 1980s, with the creation of a dual system: public and private health insurance and public and private provision of health services.
- This reform served as a model for later World Bank–inspired reforms in countries like Colombia.
- The private part of the Chilean health system, including private insurers and private providers, is highly inefficient and has decreased solidarity between rich and poor, sick and healthy, and young and old.
- In spite of serious underfinancing during the Pinochet years, the public health component remains the backbone of the system and is responsible for the good health status of the Chilean population.
- The Chilean health reform has lessons for other countries in Latin America and elsewhere: privatisation of health insurance services may not have the expected results according to neoliberal doctrine. On the contrary, it may increase unfairness in financing and inequitable access to quality care.