Creatures of X^n heads (part 5/5)

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Creatures of X^n heads (part 4/5)

28+10 head creature

Kilobytes or also known as Kbytes or just Kb.

1 Kilobyte = 210 bytes = 218 bits.

In this case, a text file with 1 character in a text editor like LibreOffice, unlike Leafpad, in which its size would be 1 byte, now its size is approximately 7,8 Kbytes, in our example below called examplo 1. odt. And if we double these characters (that is, a file with 2 characters), different from the “intuitive” one, its size does not double, it only increases by 113 bytes bringing the file to something close to 7,9 kbytes. In our example below called examplo 2.odt.

Example of the size of files saved in .odt.

We can see in this example, that the reason that the most elaborate editors have heavier files even though their content is 1 byte and 2 bytes, is due to the number of factors that these software also store without us realizing it. Like the page size (A4), the dimensions of the page margins, the font color, the font itself (Arial, Times, Comics Sans,…), among other dozens of features that a new file (which apparently has not yet been configured) ), already loads without realizing it.

On the other hand, we can consider an image as something much more complex, with details that seem quite far-fetched, but of which, they are compressed in a very small number of data. This is a simple way to understand the differences between the different image file formats we have selected. This represents the “technique” with which the computer will compress the data that represents this image. Sometimes this brings losses, sometimes not.

The next image occupies the dimensions of 1.152×864 pixels, that is, it uses 995.328 pixels. If we look at the RGB color model, for each pixel we could assume 3 bytes spent to represent its colors. So, in a simple calculation, 995.328 times 3, this image should be 2.985.984 bytes in size. Converting to Kbytes (dividing by 1.024), we would have a file with 2.916 Kb.

But then, we open the file and check its properties, soon we find that the file is 71 Kb. How is this possible?

Exactly from what was said earlier. See these white, green and red regions in the image. The “smart computer” when using an image compression technique, tries to relate this information, avoiding repeating it when saving the content. This generates a “code” that the computer does when reading it, knowing how to fill the image with its 995.328 pixels, but to save it, it manages to do it with just 71 Kb.

Example of compressed image.

Order of magnitude in the number of heads

Similar to what we saw from the byte to the Kbyte, we have a growth in this same proportion for the other entities that we hear so much about:

Megabytes or also known as Mbytes or Mb only.

1 Megabyte = 210 kilobytes = 220 bytes = 228 bits.

“This file was 40 Mb, I can’t send it by e-mail”.

“There is still 500 Mb to complete my download”.

Gigabytes or also known as Gbytes or Gb only.

1 Gigabyte = 210 megabytes = 220 kilobytes = 230 bytes = 238 bits.

My 8 Gb pendrive is full”

That film has 3 Gb, it must be in high definition”

Terabytes or also known as Tbytes or Tb only.

1 Terabyte = 210 gigabytes = 220 megabytes = 230 kilobytes = 240 bytes = 248 bits.

“I bought an external hard drive of 1 Tb”

In the Panama-Papers operation, 3,2 Tb of files were leaked”

Knowing the relationship between the quantities, we can convert to a smaller order (Byte → Kbyte → Mbyte → Gbyte → Tbyte), dividing by 1024. And convert from a larger order (Tbyte → Gbyte → Mbyte → Kbyte → Byte) multiplying by 1024.

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